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King Edward I expelled the Jews from England in 1290, one of many notable expulsions across the continent. These measures virtually emptied Western and Central Europe of Jews. After this expulsion from England Jews did business there, and later in British colonies, as foreigners.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries European rulers began inviting Jewish merchants into their polities in the hope of stimulating commerce and filling state coffers. Jews were eventually allowed to resettle in England without a special charter for doing business, and they began to test their rights on an ad hoc basis. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries they acquired most civil rights: freedom of residence, occupation, worship, and property ownership, as well as juridical standing. In 1739 they acquired the right of naturalization in the colonies, and in the nineteenth century (1830–58) they successfully campaigned to gain political rights. 

Edward Nicholas 
An apology for the honorable nation of the Jews and all the sons of Israel 
London: John Field, 1648
Center for Jewish History, Gift of Sid Lapidus 

This “apology” calls for England to make amends for her former maltreatment of the Jews by readmitting them to the country and “repeal[ing] those severe Laws made against [them].” Edward Nicholas may be a pseudonym for Menasseh ben Israel, who later publicly urged England to readmit the Jews. 

Read the full text

“And so hereupon were the jews banished out of all the kings
And never since could they obtain any priviledge to return hither again.”
- William Prynne, 1656, On the time of King Edward's reign